Religion: With Corruption Came Reform & With Intolerability Came War
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Economy of the $ixteeth Century
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· Mercantilism is an economic theory of the 16th century
· The prosperity of a nation is dependent on its wealth
· Wealth is represented by bullion, which is gold, silver, and trading value
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· A balance of trade with other nations is the key to increasing the amount of bullion of a state
· Governments feel that they should protect their economy by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, especially when they are using tariffs to collect money from other nations
· Mercantilism was the prominent thought throughout the 16th to the 18th century
· Domestically, this led to government intervention and control over the economy
· During this period a great deal if the capitalist system was established.
· Calvinistic ideas supported and influenced the popularity of capitalism
· Internationally, mercantilism encouraged European wars and sparked imperialism


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· The sixteenth century in Europe was a time of unprecedented change
· It was the beginning of the modern era
· The century started with the discovery of a new continent

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· Life was getting better for the average person
· Economy was growing
· Commerce, international finance, trading fleets, and the prosperous middle-class, were all creating a capitalist economy
· Technological innovations like gunpowder and cannons were changing the nature of warfare

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· The printing press was able to spread information faster to everyone, which created a media revolution.
· The printing press made it able for the bible to be mass produced
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· The economy was prosperous at the beginning of the century
· Even the average peasant was able to afford a bit of meat in the stew pot
· People were having larger families and the population was growing
· The combination of the increase in population and inflation sparked a price rise
· This cut wages in half
· Many peasants lost their land
. At times, towns would start to decline
. The wool and cloth trade would decline

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· Most land was controlled by the nobles and the rising bourgeoisie

· Homelessness and vagrancy were increasing
· Towns experienced a crisis trying to
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deal with the poor

· By the end of the century, a peasant almost never had meat
· Many of them started revolts
· In the middle of the sixteenth century many deposits of silver were discovered in Mexico and Peru
· A new method of extracting the silver from the ore was developed, so the amount of silver reaching Spain became very great
· Much bullion was spent to support activities that were not directly related to Spanish affairs
· The Columbian Exchange introduced many plants, animals and goods that increased trade between European countries and their colonies
· Introduction of the spinning wheel revolutionizes textile production in Europe.
· Through globalization, many countries like Spain, Portugal, France, and England started to explore the Americas and the New World
· This increased wealth of the nations in Europe
· Religious wars effected Europe economically
· The average person living in Europe during this time was the most affected
· The armies were huge and in order to fund them, states had to raise taxes
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· Many of the mercenaries went through villages and towns taking all they could from towns
· This made the people angry towards governments
· The nations in Europe were totally reliant on bullion and spices from the New World
. Historians can look back at 16th century art and see that the art reflects the wealth of that time period
. They concluded that Italy probobly was extremely wealthy
. The 16th century was not really a time of many innovations and inventions
. A drastic increase in technology did not occur until later centuries




Social Developments
-The old regime of Europe was very much entrenched in power; peasants were being taxed into poverty by not only landowners, but also by the church.

-The peasantry supported the ideas of reformer Martin Luther, who they believed supported their push for political and economic rights, and their release for the horros of serfdom. (Luther condemned their revolts)
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-Groups like anabaptists made changes to religion, the center of society during this time period, like rejecting infant baptism. They seperated from the mainframe society to try and create a more perfect community, fashioned after that of the first Christians.

-Geneva became a city of Calvinists: after the revolution against the local prince-bishop, John Calvin helped write articles for governance by the church, and a catechism to giude the people morally. His code became too strict: he demanded things like no dancing, and all clothing must be black or dark blue.
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-Women found a safe retreat in Geneva, because there were laws punishing men who beat their wives.
-Professions were closed to women; their work was domestic. They were often domestic servants, and midwives, and such jobs. In rural areas, they helped their husbands on the farm, as did the children.
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-Education saw somewhat of an increase in this time period, although not to women. Groups like The Brothers of the Common Life, also known as the Modern Devotion worked as copyists, ran hospices for poor students, and conducted schools for the young, particularly boys leaning towards a monastic vocation.
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Intellectual/Technological milestones:

-The 16th century witnesed the establishment of colonial empires in the New World, especially for Spain.

-Early explorers like Magellan and Vespucci, after the initial discovery by Christopher Columbus, established the western land as an entirely new continent.


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-Angered by Archbishop Albert's blatant selling of indulgences, and other church attrocities, Martin Luther wrote his 95 thesis, listing his grievances of the Catholic Church, fundamentally arguing the lack of biblical basis in church actions.

-New protestant religions maintained that the bible itself was the highest authority in religion, not the pope, or church.

external image thermometer.jpg-In 1593, Galileo invented the first thermometer, used to quantify changes of heat in water.

-Aloysius Lilius proposed the Gregorian Calendar, which was decreed by Pope Gregorry VIII after whom it was named. It proposed years of 365, and leap years of 366 days with months of irregluar length.

-The Flush toilet was infact not invented by Thomas Crapper, but rather by Sir George Harrington in the 16th century.

-Gian Giorgio Trissino was the first to distinguish "i" and "j" as two different letters, reperesenting different sounds.

-Nicolaus Copernicus proposed the Heliocentric model of the universe, putting the Sun at the center of the solar system, and the earth, and other planets orbiting around it. external image 225px-Jan_Matejko-Astronomer_Copernicus-Conversation_with_God.jpg











The Arts of the 16th Century
The High Renaissance
-Late 15th to early 16th century
-Renaissance way of thought: Worldly spirit, advances in reason and knowledge, value of Greek and Roman classical culture, and the value of the human individual (humanism), evident in art.
-High Renaissance art: observation of natural world and communication of human emotions (humanist influence).
-New rationality influences mathematical accurateness of human anatomy in art-symmetrical, proportional, colorful, realistic, often secular.
-Contrast to Medieval art: abstract looking, somewhat two-dimensional, anatomically off, full of religious seriousness.




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Versus










Medieval art Versus High Renaissance art


-Some new techniques in painting:
-Linear perspective: graphing system artists used to create the illusion of depth on a flat surface. (the canvas)



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-Oil paints
-The use of shading to enhance realism

The artists
-High Renaissance had many artists, but the three most well known are Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Raphael.

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519):
-external image Leonardo%20Da%20Vinci%20Self%20Portrait.jpgTrue “Renaissance man”- very well rounded: architect, sculptor, engineer, painter, scientist, and inventor.
-Uses arts to glorify man.
-Famous works:






The Mona Lisa:
-Arguably the most famous painting ever made. Admired for its anatomical accuracy and the curious expression on her face, giving insight into her innermost emotions and personality (value of the individual).
-Widely believed to be a portrait of an ordinarywoman, the wife of a businessman, not a religious figure as medieval art almost always portrayed.



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The Vitruvian Man:
-In the spirit of the Renaissance, an anatomical study of an ordinary man.
-Perfect proportions. Ex: length of man’s outstretched arms are equal to his height, ten heads make his height, four fingers make one palm, etc.


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The Last Supper:
-Traditional scene of Jesus Christ’s last night alive, when he announces to the apostles that one of them external image last-supper-by-lionardo-da-vinci.jpgwill betray him.
-Portrayal of the scene is what makes it unique, the display of emotion and personal disposition of each apostle through their different facial expressions and body language in reaction to what they had just heard.
-More in depth perception of a traditional scene, focusing on the individuals involved as much if not more than its religious significance. (Also notice the use of linear perspective)






Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1475-1564):
-Painter, sculptor, architect and poet.
-Devout Christian. Studies anatomy and works to glorify God.

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-Famous works:

Statue of David:
-18- foot statue portraying David from the biblical story “David and Goliath.”
-Unique: David stands mostly on his own two feet without support.
-Portrayal of the ideal male specimen, under the classical influence of Greek and Roman art and culture



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Sistine Chapel:
-Biblical scenes and histories of the bible painted on ceiling and walls of Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.
-Portrays his unique interpretation of biblical characters and stories: appearance of characters, emotion, and body language.
-Beautiful and accurate representation of the human physical form.



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Pieta (Italian for “pity”):
-Sculpture of the Virgin Mary cradling her dead son, Jesus, who is sprawled across her lap
-Shows his mastery of anatomy, drapery, and of capturing human emotion (very powerful portrayal of Mary’s sorrow).


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external image altoviti.jpgRaphael Sanzio (1483-1520):
-Painter and architect.
-Probably most widely liked artist of his time.
-Very much influenced by work of Michelangelo
and Leonardo.
-Famous works:

The School of Athens:
-Secular painting of the School of Athens in ancient Greece.
-Shows his appreciation of classical culture and philosophy- portrays many famous philosophers: Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, etc., many with the faces of the artists that he admired, such as Michelangelo and Leonardo Da Vinci.
-Very expressive painting. Also shows Raphael’s talent in architecture
-Use of linear perspective.


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The Sistine Madonna:
-Painting of the Virgin Mary, child and Saints Sixtus and Barbara.
-Dynamic, harmonious, gentle, became massively popular.




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Mannerism:
-Around 1520 to 1580
-Derived from the Italian word “maniera,” meaning “style.”
-Emerges as a reaction against the symmetry and simplicity of High Renaissance art and precedes the Baroque Period.
-Not associated with one style (depended on the personal “manner”/ “style” of the artist).
-Superficial realism- more emphasis on the artist’s ingenuity and intellectual bias in the piece than its realism.
-Clashing colors and intentional distortion, exaggeration, and abstraction of the human form.
-Theatrical, emotional, stylized.external image mann_elgreco_acopalypse.jpg
-Often strange, unsettling, even bizarre.

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Versus









High Renaissance
Mannerism


The Artists :


Jacopo Tintoretto (1518-1594):
-Painter
-Original name Jacopo Robusti
-Very influenced by works of Michelangelo and Titian.
-Known for bold use of color and dramatic lighting and shadow in his paintings.external image self_portrait-400.jpg
-Famous works:





The Crucifixion:
-Painting showing his interpretation of the Crucifixion of
Christ
-Signature dramatic lighting and shadow.
-Mannerist Style: no special focus of Christ (no light or halo around his head) and his mourners-light shines equally on all figures in painting, even strangers and those who do not know or mourn him, because to many at the time, it was just a common, everyday execution. Not a painting emphasizing its religious significance, but very realistic interpretation of what a person might have actually seen if they were there. external image crucifixion.jpg



The Miracle of Saint Mark Freeing The Slave:
-Miraculous scene of Saint Mark coming to the rescue of one of his devoted followers, who has been condemned to having his eyes put out and legs broken for worshipping the saint’s relics. He makes every one of the executioner’s attempts to torture or kill him fail (the array of broken weapons and objects on the ground and in his hand).
-Painted a semicircle so the viewer will feel like one of the dumbfounded spectators in the painting.
-Slave on the ground believed to be a self- portrait of Tintoretto: similarity in characteristics and how he most likely would have been able to empathize for the slave.
Being an artist, he would have found the punishment of blindness especially devastating.external image thepoliticalcorrectnesst.jpg

The Last Supper
-Another depiction (Leonardo) of the last night that Christ was alive, when he announces that one of his disciples will betray him.
-Mannerist style: unlike in other depictions of this scene, Christ is surprisingly small and not in the center of the painting, he is off to the side, making the painting rather controversial
-Eerie radiance, complexity, and overwhelming energy
-Mannerist distortions: table and people diminish to an unnatural size at end, giving painting depth. external image Tintoretto-LastS-SGMag-BR900.jpg




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El Greco (1541-1614):
-Painter, sculptor, and architect
-Name means “The Greek”, since he was born in Greece.
-Originally named Domenikos Theotokopoulos (no wonder he changed it).
-Arguably the best known mannerist artist.
-Known for elongation and distortion of figures, intense, pure colors, and bold shapes.
-Very signature style that originated and has remained his own.
-Regards self as an artist philosopher.
-Famous works:


The Disrobing of Christ (El Espolio):
-One of his most important works
-Portrayal of Christ being tormented by captors- robe about to be ripped off for his crucifixion.
-Controversial: Christ in grounded and in center, among his tormentors and not elevated high above them.
-Emotion and psychological state of people in scene powerfully portrayed through his signature bold use of color.


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Laocoon:
-Only surviving piece portraying a mythological subject.
-portrayl of the story of Laocoon, a Trojan priest who tried to warn his people that the wooden horse sent to them was filled with soldiers. Him and his two sons are attacked by sea serpents because they had apparently offended the gods.
-Inspired by a Hellenistic sculpture of the scene unearthed in 1506:

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-In background, view of the Spanish city of Toledo as Troy.
-Characteristic Mannerist elongation and distortions to enchance the emotion and dramaticism of the scene.
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Baroque Period:
-Succeeds mannerism.
-mainly associated with the religious tensions with Western Christianity: Protestantism vs. Roman Catholocism/ Protestant Reformation vs. Counter Reformation.
-Embraced by Catholic Counter Reformation
-Intended to be doctrinally correct and visually and emotionally appealing to attract as many people as possible to the church.
-Stylistically complex/ elaborate.
-Baroque style (art, architecture): grandeaur, richness, drama, motion, energy, tension.
-Exaggerated decoration, huge furniture, colossal sculptures.
-Reflects desire to evoke emotion by appealing to the senses.
-Painting: strong contrast of light and shadow.
-Realism in art, a departure from mannerism.



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fancy-shmancy.
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...you get the idea.




Some artists you should know about:

Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640):external image 11410-rubens_portrait.jpg
-Painter
-Well-known for Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, hunt scenes, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects.
-Helps define the animated, sensuous aspects of the Baroque period.
-Inspired by Renaissance painters such as Raphael and Michelangelo.
-Ridiculously popular.
-Famous works:


The Raising of the Cross:
-Painting portraying multitide of very muscled men struggling to lift the seemingly unbearable weight of Jesus on the cross. (Symbolism? Hmm...)
-Obvious influence of Renaissance artists.
-Painted for high altar of Antwerp's church of St. Walpurgus.
-Dramatic coloring and shadow
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The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus:
-Lifsize depiction of mythological subject: Twin brothers Castor and Pollux abducting the daughters of King Luecippus, later marrying them.
-Very sensual painting.
-Very controversial painting (Especially to feminists): Is Rubens advocating rape? Is this a celebratory depiction of sexual violence and forcible subjugation of women by men? (Considering the times... Yeah, probably.) Is this an allegory of marriage? (That's just messed up.) Is he championing primal human desires? You decide.
-It looks a little something like this:

external image rubens_leucippus.jpg...Pretty risque', huh?



Caexternal image caravaggio_self.jpgravaggio/ Michelangelo Merisi (1571-1610):
-Painter
-Originally named Michelangelo Merisi but later named after the place he was born in: Caravaggio, Italy.
-Kind of the "bad boy" of the Baroque period in artistic style as well as personality.
-Paintings rather controversial becouse of realistic, dramatic nature, (kind of morbid) and "theological incorrectness".
-Imporatant works:

Judith Beheading Holofernes:
-Religious depiction of Biblical character Judith, who, in an effort to prevent an enemy's attack on her people, seeks out Babylonian General Holofernes in his tent, gets him drunk, then kills him.
-Allegory of triumph of good over evil.
-Painting from male perspective, the woman needing divine intervention to commit the deed: Judith seems psychologically repulsed by her actions, almost squeamish, as though she has no control over what she is doing. Holofernes is not being held down by the women and is looking up, as though his struggle is not with them but with God and God alone. (Goes along with steriotype that women would need divine intervention to commit such an act.)
-Characteristic dramatic shading and realism of the Baroque period.

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The Incredulity of Saint Thomas:
-Painting of one of Christ's apostles, Thomas, who missed the appearance of Christ before his apostles after his resurection. He claimed that he would not believe it unless he was able to personally thrust his hand into Christ's side.
-Dramatic disbelief as Christ appears before him and he touches him.
-Dramatically and physically shocking.
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Religion

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The Protestant Reformation
-A clash between emerging Protestant Reformation and the Roman Catholic Church (the Counter-Reformation).
-Peoexternal image devil+and+angel+2.jpgple begin to challenge aspects of the Renaissance, particularly its glorification of human nature and loyalty to traditional religion.
-Protestants emphasize more on human potential for evil rather than good.
-Immense respect for scripture and desire to learn from primary scources (meaning Hebrew and Greek scriptures), a result of Renaissance way of thought, enabling them to question and challenge the traditional religious authorites of the day.
-Advocates of Reformation were often people who were economically and socially rising, such as people in guilds, eexternal image western-schism.jpgspcially the printing guild.
(Printing press plays humongous role in the Protestant Reformation. Contibutes external image printing_press.jpggreatly to the spreading of ideas).
-Partly the result of the Great Schism, Conciliar Period, and the Renaissance papacy- the church had ceased to be spiritually uplifting for a lot of people.
-Wordliness of papacy and passionless teachings of Scholastic Theologains- People begin to search for a more indivisualistic, heartfelt faith.
-Criticism and resentment of the worldliness and legal immunity of the church.
-A lot of experimental religious movements with a common goal: religious simplicity in imitation of the ways of Christ, an honoring of poverty and true self-sacrifice, in contrast to the ways of the traditional clergy.
-Some significant people:
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Martin Luther and the German Reformation(1483-1546):
-Was originally going to follow a career track in law, but changed his mind after an incident during a thunder storm, in which hexternal image mother%20teresa%20costume.jpge called out to Saint Anne for help, promising to become a monk if he were allowed to live.
-Criticism of Catholic church: feels unrealisticaly sinful compared to the perfect piety expected from people in order to achieve salvation. Argues that no human being could ever achieve the level of perfection expected of them in order to enter heaven.
-Advocates "justification by faith alone": faith, not dogma, was the way to salvation. If you believed in Christ, you would be saved.
-October 31, 1517: Legend has it that Luther posted his Ninety-five Thesis against indulgences on the Door of the Catholic Castle Church in Wittenberg. Attacks belief that indulgences actually remitted sins as though you could buy your way into heaven.
-Challenges infallibility of pope and authority of scripture.


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-Famous pamphlets:
-"The Babylonian Captivity of the Church": Attacks the seven sacraments, saying that only two of them, Baptism and the Eucharist, were legitamite. Exalts authority of scripture, church councils, and secular princes over that of the pope.
-"Freedom of a Christain": Summarizing of new teaching of salvation by faith alone.

- Important dates:
-June 15, 1520: Pope Leo's "Exurge Domine" condemns Luther for heresy and gives him 60 days to retract.
-January 3, 1521: "Decet Pontifecem Romanium"- bull of exocommunication.
-April 1521: Luther presents his views at Emperor Charles V's Diet of Worms - ordered to recant his beliefs. Luther claims that doing so would be in defiance of scripture, reason, and his own conscience.
-May 26, 1521: Luther is placed under imperial ban and decalered an "outlaw" to secular and religious authority.
-April 1521- March 1522: Hides in secluded castle of friends', where he translates the New Testament into German (that's certainly the normal kind of thing people do with a lot of spare time) and attempts to oversee the Reformation going on in Wittenberg.

- The Peasant's Revolt:
external image PeasantRevolt.gif-Peasants at first consider Luther to be an ally- Luther's teaching about freedom of a Christain, criticism of monastic landowners, and praising of the peasant way of life as virtuous appeals to them.
-BUT: Luther NOT a social revolutionary
-1524-1525: Peasant's revolt against their masters. Luther condemns them as "un-Christain" (Ouch) and encourages the princes to crush the revolt by all means necessary.
-Tens of thousands of peasants killed in process.
-Luther's reasons: People must have misunderstood. He meant "freedom of a Christain" as in finding an inner release from guilt and anxiety, not the right to violently reform society. - these views end the promise of the Reformation being a social revolution.
-There would be wars for the religious freedoms of Protestants and Calvinists in the future





Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531):
-Leader of Swiss Reformation.external image zwingli1.jpg
-1518 He was known for his opposition to the sale of indulgences and to religious superstition-One of his first acts as a reformer was to petition for an end to clerical celibacy and the right of clergy to marry
-Zwingli's Scripture Test said if Scripture did not say t, do not believe it or practice it-Zwingli believed in consubstantiation, where there was a symbolic interpretation of the bread and wine with him being spiritually present, but the bread and wine is not actually his body and blood
-Luther believed in transubstantiation, where Christ is spiritually and bodily present as part of his special nature-Both met at the Marburg Colloquy in 1529, where Luther thought Zwingli was a dangerous fanatic-This disagreement splintered the Protestant movement-In 1530, the Tetropolitan Confession is where Zwingli's theological views issued as an alternative to the Lutheran Augsburg Confession



Anababtists:
baptism.jpg-Radical reformers who did not think Luther or Zwingli had gone far enough
-They rejected infant baptism, believing that baptism of consenting adults conformed to Scripture and was more respectful to human freedom
-1527: Schleitheim Confession distinguished Anabaptists by their practice of adult baptism and their refusal to go to war, swear oaths, and participate in offices of secular government-Anabaptist extremists came to power in Munster, under the leadership of Menno Simons



Spiritualists:
- Radical movement made up of isolated individuals distinguished by disdain of all traditions and institutions-They believed that the only religious authority was God's spirit, which spoke here and now to every individual

Antitrinitarianism:A_servetus.jpg
-Radical Protestants who believed in common sense, rational and ethical religion-Like Spaniard Michael Servetus, they opposed Calvinism, especially the beliefs of original sin and predestination-They had a reputation as defenders of religious tolerance




John Calvin an the Genevan Reformation:a_john-calvin.jpg
-His ideology inspired massive political resistance in France, Netherlands, and Scotland-He believed in predestination, where God had already decided if one was to be saved or damned, as well he believed in the indiidual responsibility to reorder society according to God's plan
-Geneva experienced a political revolution as Calvin arrived when it adopted the Reformation
-He helped draw up articles for the governance of the new church, but his ideas were too strict
-Eventually he implemented the ideas for the Genevan church, which was divided into four offices, pastors, teachers or doctors, elders, and deacons
- They followed all of the beliefs of Calvin and became home to thousands of exiled Protestants
-Geneva was also known as a "women's paradise" because laws severely punished men who beat their wives





The English Reformation:
a_henry-viii.jpg-King Henry VIII, the Defender of Faith, was unhappily married to Catherine of Aragon-Henry was unable to get a papal annulment from the church-He broke away from the papacy, making himself supreme head of the Church of England-He did this in his 1534 Act of Supremacy, as well with his Act of Succession, he made Anne Boelyn's children legitimate heirs to the throne-The Ten Articles of 1536 made mild concessions to Protestant tenets-Six Articles of 1539 reaffirmed transubstantiation, denied Eucharist cup to the laity, declared celibate vows inviolable, provided for private masses, and continuation of auricular confession ("whip with six strings")-Edward VI fully enacted the Protestant reformation by repealing laws made by his father and imposed the Act of Uniformity in 1549, which imposed Thomas Cranmer'sBook of Common Prayer
-Mary I proceeded to restore Catholic doctrine and practice, and with her Marian exiles became known as "Bloody Mary"




The Counter Reformation:
opening_of_council_of_trent1548-1.jpg-New religious orders sprang up to have reform within the church, such as the Theatines, Capuchins, Somaschi & Barbarites, Ursalines, and Oratorians
-Ignatius of Loyola organized the Society of Jesus and was a soldier of Christ, as well as writing Spiritual Excercises
-The Council of Trent was formed to reassert church doctrine due to successes of the Reformation and insistence of Charles V
-They did not make a single doctrinal concession to the Protestants
-They reaffirmed the role of good works in salvation, authority of church tradition, the seven sacraments, transubstantiation, clerical celibacy, the reality of purgatory, the veneration of saints, relics and sacred images, and granting letter of indulgences (But they stopped selling them)




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(Answers: Martin Luther, Charles V, Henry VIII, Mary Queen of Scots, John Knox, Hernado Cortes, Ignatius of Loyola, Mary I, Elizabeth I, Henry IV)
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The Century's Most Awkward Dinner Party
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